2022-03-31 02:36:56 来源:


1997-(71) Actually, it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something he world does not have.


1997-(72) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.


1997-(73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.


1997-(74) Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.


1997-(75) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.



1998-(71) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.


1998-(72) The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.


1998-(73) Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.


1998-(74) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.


1998-(75) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.



1999-(71) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.


1999-(72) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.


1999-(73) During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.


1999-(74) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.


1999-(75) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.



2000-(71) Under modern conditions, this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts.


2000- (72) Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country’s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.


2000- (73) Owing to the remarkable development in mass-communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.



2000-For example, (74) in the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization—with all the far-reaching changes in social patterns that followed—was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so.


2000- (75) Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements—themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport.



2001-(71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.


2001- (72) Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and digital age will have arrived.


2001- (73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.


2001- (74) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: “It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”


2001- (75) And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage. 家用电器将会变得如此智能,以至于控制和操作它们会引发一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁症。


2002-(61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. 艰难之一在于几乎所有所谓的行为科学都继续从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。


2002- (62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.


2002- (63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. 自然选择在进化过程中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始得以认识和研究。


2002- (64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. 自由和尊严是传统理论中自主人所拥有的,它们是实践活动中必不可少的,在实践中,一个人应该对自己的行为负责,并且对因其成就而获得信任。

2002- (65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems. 如果这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的唯一方式可能也随之受到排斥。


2003-(61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.


2003- (62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.


2003- (63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

强调搜集第一手资料,加上在分析过去和现在的文化形态时采用跨文化视角,使这一研究成为一门独特 非常重要的社会科学。

2003- (64) Tylor defined culture as “… that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”


2003- (65) Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture,” like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding. 因此,像数学中“集”的概念一样,人类学中“文化”的概念是一个抽象概念,它使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能。



2004- (61) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.




2004- (62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.


2004- (63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.


2004- (64) Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.


2004- (65) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.



2005-(46) Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed — and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.


2005- (47) In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.


2005- (48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989. 这一点就足以证明,要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事。统计数字尤其说明了这一事实,在80个欧洲电视网中,多达一半在1989年亏损。

2005- (49) Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.


2005- (50) In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say “Unity we stand, divided we fall”. 在应对如此规模的挑战时,可以毫不夸张地说:如果团结,我们就成功;如果分裂,我们就失败。


2006-(46) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic (苏格拉底) way about moral problems. 我会把知识分子定位为这样的人,他把以苏格拉底的方式来思考道德问题作为人生中的首要任务和乐趣。

2006- (47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.


2006- (48) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.


2006- (49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.


2006- (50) They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. 他们(知识分子)可能很擅长于教书,而且不仅仅是为了挣钱。但是他们大多数人对涉及道德判断的人类问题很少或者根本没有进行独立思考。


2007-(46) Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.


2007- (47) On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.



2007- (48) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.


2007- (49) In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.


2007- (50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments. 虽然律师所提供的评论和反馈可能会提高新闻报道的质量,但是记者要依靠自己的价值观做出判断则更加难能可贵。


2008-(46) he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.



2008- (47) He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.


2008- (48) On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.


2008- (49) He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.”



2008- (50) Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character. 达尔文确信,失去这些爱好,不仅失去了快乐,还可能会伤害智力,甚至可能会损伤道德品质。



2009-(46) It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive.



2009- (47) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. 机构附带产生的影响只有逐渐地才能被注意到;而这种影响被视为机构运作的指导性因素的过程则更加缓慢。


2009- (48) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.


2009- (49) Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.


2009- (50) We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education—that of direct tuition or schooling.



2010-(46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them.



2010- (47) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us. 但是,我们至少是更接近了问题的要点:不管鸟类是否对我们具有经济价值,它们都应该继续享有其作为一个生物物种固有的权利。


2010- (48) Time was when biologists somewhat overworked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless” species.



2010-(49) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason.


2010- (50) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.




2011-(46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share—that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts—and reveal its erroneous nature.



2011- (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ”




2011- (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom.



2011- (49) circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us, and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation.



2011- (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.




2012-(46) In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see.



2012-(47) Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification, for if all humans share common origins, it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings.




2012-(48) To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behaviour arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.



2012-(49) The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality, identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages, which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints.



2012-(50) Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it, whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations.




2013-(46) yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.



2013- (47) A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.




2013-(48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such.



2013- (49) most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic.



2013- (50) It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.




2014-(46) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.


2014- (47) By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.


2014- (48) Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.


2014- (49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.


2014- (50) One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.



2015-(46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent. (28)




2015-(47) The United States is the product of two principal forces—the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. (34)




2015-(48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the carried national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. (35)




2015-(49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United Sates crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th-and-16th-century explorations of North America. (30)




2015-(50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. (24)





2016-(46)We don’t have to learn how to be healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.(32)


2016-(47) Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.(31)


2016-(48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.(30)


2016- (49) Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions.(31)


2016- (50) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.(30)



(46) But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.


(47) His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generations of the United Kingdom do not need additional languages capabilities.


(48) many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.


(49) The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to the UK’s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors.


(50) It gives a basis to all organisations which seek to promote the learning and use of English, a basis for planning to meet the possibilities of what could be a very different operating environment.